The antenna and radio equipment necessary to provide mobile service in an area
Second-generation and third-generation mobile telephone technology
An electrical current or voltage with a changeable direction (polarity) with respect to a fixed reference
A unit of electric charge; the electric charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere for one hour
Average Revenue per User; a measure used primarily by mobile network operators as the total revenue divided by the number of subscribers. It includes not only the revenues billed to the customer each month for usage, but also the revenue generated from incoming calls, payable within the regulatory interconnection regime.
Capital Expenditure create future benefits. A capital expenditure is incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or to add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life extending beyond the taxable year.
Provide a way to reduce greenhouse effect emissions on an industrial scale by capping total annual emissions and letting the market assign a monetary value to any shortfall through trading.
A quantity that describes, for a given mixture and amount of greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 that would have the same global warming potential when measured over a specified timescale
Represents how much fuel a diesel generator consumes per hour.
GSMA’s Community Power from Mobile programme which works to leverage the scale of mobile technology and infrastructure to improve the case for off-grid telecoms and provide millions of underserved communities with access to improved energy services.
An electrical current or voltage with a constant direction (polarity) with respect to a fixed reference
Using less energy/electricity to perform the same function.
Energy Saving Agreement.
Energy Service Company is a commercial business providing a broad range of energy solutions including designs and implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, energy infrastructure outsourcing, power generation and energy supply, and risk management. The ESCO performs an in-depth analysis of the property, designs an energy efficient solution, installs the required elements, and maintains the system to ensure energy savings during the payback period. The savings in energy costs is often used to pay back the capital investment of the project over a five- to twenty-year period, or reinvested into the building to allow for capital upgrades that may otherwise be unfeasible. If the project does not provide returns on the investment, the ESCO is often responsible to pay the difference.
- is a form of rechargeable battery in which electrolyte containing one or more dissolved electro-active species flows through an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy directly to electricity. Redox flow batteries consist of two liquid electrolytes. They contain metal ions which flow through electrodes made of porous graphite fleece. A membrane separates the electrodes and therefore only protons get through. During this exchange of charge, electricity is created which can subsequently be used.
a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen to run, but they can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied.
Gross Domestic Product
Green House Gases are in the atmosphere and absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.
A base station powered by renewable energy that has been built by GSMA’s Green Power for Mobile programme.
GSMA’s Green Power for Mobile programme which aim to extending the coverage, reducing the cost and minimising the environmental impact of mobile networks by championing renewable energy
Global System for Mobile Communications
Infrastructure Provider - an independent company that provides infrastructure for mobile operators; sometimes called a Tower Company.
Internal Rate of Return
A unit of mass
A measure of distance
Key Performance Indicator
The unit of apparent power. kVA is used for measuring the power consumption of non-resistive equipment’s such as generators
A unit of power (see watt)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. It contains legally binding commitments, in addition to those included in the UNFCCC. Countries included in Annex B of the Protocol agreed to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride) by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012.
Mobile Energy Efficiency, a GSMA Initiative. As mobile use expands, so does the demand for energy, particularly by the network infrastructure. The GSMA's Mobile Energy Efficiency (MEE) Benchmarking service enables operators to identify energy cost cutting and also greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities in their mobile networks across the world. MEE Benchmarking enables operators to lower their network energy costs and emissions. Potential energy cost and carbon emissions savings of 20% to 25% per annum are typical for underperforming networks.
The hertz is a unit of frequency; defined as the number of complete cycles per second.
Mobile Network Operator
Interface between the base station system, i.e. the BTS and the switching subsystem of the mobile phone network
Network Operations Centre - where the entire network is monitored and direction is provided to field maintenance teams.
Non Governmental Organisation
Net Present Value
Operating Expenditure is an ongoing cost for running a product, business, or system.
Solar power is sometimes used as a synonym for photovoltaic to refer to electricity generated from solar radiation. Solar photovoltaic, or simply photovoltaic (SPV or PV), refers to the technology of using solar cells to convert solar radiation directly into electricity. A solar cell works based on the photovoltaic effect. R&D and practical experience with photovoltaics have led to the development of three generations of solar cells: Crystalline silicon based solar cells, thin film solar cells and third generation PV. Solar PV is very likely to play a significant role in climate change mitigation in the future.
Power Purchase Agreement
A base station powered by renewable energy and has not been built by the GSMA’s Green Power for Mobile programme.
Return on Investment
Tower Operations Center - where tower and passive infrastructures are monitored and provide direction to field maintenance teams. TOCS are generally used by Infrastructure Providers.
One voltage is equivalent to one ampere at one watt of power
A unit of electrical power equal to one ampere under the pressure of one volt
The conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity. A wind turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from the flow of wind. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft with blades attached. Wind energy acts on the blades, or the blades react to wind, so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor.