There is a strong substitute market which is in direct competition with mobile roaming services, especially data services. Today there are multiple substitutes available for roaming services and technologies in these areas, which continue to develop and grow. For example, Wi-Fi has grown as a strong substitute for an increasing number of customers and operators alike in the domestic and roaming markets.
Some operators are contributing to a shift in data traffic by encouraging customers to use Wi-Fi networks when possible. This is driven by rapid growth in demand and congestion of mobile networks in some regions. There has been a strong push from manufacturers and service providers to increase the availability and penetration of Wi-Fi-enabled handsets. Today all major smartphone manufacturers include Wi-Fi capability in their handset portfolios, which allows consumers to use Wi-Fi hotspots at home and abroad.