GSMA Glossary of Aviation and Mobile Terms

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ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System)

AVIATION TERM

An airborne collision avoidance system operates independently from ground-based equipment and air traffic control, warning pilots of the presence of other aircraft that may present a threat of collision.

If the risk of collision is imminent, the system initiates a manoeuvre that will reduce the risk of collision.

ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast)

AVIATION TERM

ADS-B is primarily a surveillance technology developed for tracking the position of an aircraft. The position information is obtained via GNSS systems and it is then transmitted to a ground station or to other aircraft.

With ADS-B, you’ll be required to broadcast your position information to ADS-B ground stations and other aircraft. This is called ADS-B “Out.” But those ground stations are also broadcasting valuable information you can use if your aircraft is equipped to receive it, using ADS-B “In” technology.

The system is broadly used by commercial aircraft and some general aviation all in the controlled airspace. Deployment of this technology started around 2009, and in 2020 some countries are mandating the use of ADS-B but the deployment is still in progress. The system is using the spectrum at 1090 MHz, however there is also a second band available at 978MHz that is only used in the USA.

(Source: ADSB EUROPE)

AGL (Above Ground Level)

AVIATION TERM

The actual height above the ground over which you’re flying. It represents the relative altitude from any ’obstacle’ or ‘object’ on the ground and the absolute elevation/altitude will most likely be different.

Under current Part 107 limits, a drone (sUAS) may operate no higher than 400 feet (121.9 metres) above the ground, but may operate within 400 feet of a structure (including above that structure) even if the structure is higher than 400 feet.

Air Corridor

AVIATION TERM

A route that aircraft must take through an area in which flying is restricted.

(Source: Dictionary of Aviation, A&C Black)

Airspace Class (from A-G)

AVIATION TERM

Airspace Classes A – E refer to Controlled Airspace.

Controlled Airspace is defined as airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.

(Source: ICAO)

Controlled Airspace is provided primarily to protect its users, mostly commercial airliners, and as such, aircraft which fly in controlled airspace must be equipped to a certain standard and their pilots must hold certain flying qualifications. Pilots must obtain clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to enter such airspace and, except in an emergency situation, they must follow ATC instructions implicitly.

(Source: NATS)

Class A:
IFR flights only are permitted, all flights are provided with air traffic control service and are separated from each other.

Class B:
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, all flights are provided with air traffic control service and are separated from each other.

Class C:
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, all flights are provided with air traffic control service and IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights and from VFR flights. VFR flights are separated from IFR flights and receive traffic information in respect of other VFR flights.

Class D:
IFR and VFR flights are permitted and all flights are provided with air traffic control service, IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights and receive traffic information in respect of VFR flights, VFR flights receive traffic information in respect of all other flights.

Class E:
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, IFR flights are provided with air traffic control service and are separated from other IFR flights. All flights receive traffic information as far as is practical. Class E shall not be used for control zones.

(Source: ICAO)

Airspace Classes F-G refer to Uncontrolled Airspace.

Class F: IFR and VFR flights are permitted. ATC separation will be provided, so far as practical, to aircraft operating under IFR. Traffic Information may be given as far as is practical in respect of other flights.

Class G: IFR and VFR flights are permitted. ATC has no authority but VFR minimums are to be known by pilots. Traffic Information may be given as far as is practical in respect of other flights.

(Source: ICAO)

Airworthiness

AVIATION TERM

The condition of an item (aircraft, aircraft system or part) in which that item operates in a safe manner to accomplish its intended function.

(Source: JARUS)

ANSP (Air Navigation Service Providers)

AVIATION TERM

Any public or private entity providing air navigation services for general air traffic, or a body that manages flight traffic on behalf of a company, region or country.

(Source: EUROCONTROL and ICAO)

APN (Access Point Name)

MOBILE TERM

Access Point Name identifies a gateway between a Mobile Network and a data network, most commonly for smartphone could be the public internet.

It is an identifier that a mobile operator uses to understand the data network that the user wants to communicate to, or the particular service that want to use. Not only help to find the appropriate IP address but it also identifies the appropriate authentication and security settings required. For details about it see details in 3GPP TS 23.003.

(Source: 3GPP)

ATC (Air Traffic Control)

AVIATION TERM

A service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic.

(Source: FAA)

ATM (Air Traffic Management)

AVIATION TERM

The dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace (including air traffic services, airspace management and air traffic flow management) – safely, economically and efficiently – through the provision of facilities and seamless services, in collaboration with all parties and involving airborne and ground-based functions.

(Source: ICAO)

Band

MOBILE TERM

See ‘Frequency Band’

Bandwidth

MOBILE TERM

The maximum amount of data transmitted over an internet connection in a given amount of time.

Bandwidth is often mistaken for internet speed when it’s actually the volume of information that can be sent over a connection in a measured amount of time – calculated in megabits per second (Mbps).

(Source: VERIZON)

Bandwidth Efficiency (or Spectral Efficiency)

MOBILE TERM

Bandwidth Efficiency, also called spectral efficiency, refers to the rate at which information can be transmitted over a given bandwidth. It is measured in bits per second per hertz.

(Source: IGI Global)

Beamforming

MOBILE TERM

Beamforming is a technique that focuses a wireless signal towards a specific receiving device, rather than having the signal spread in all directions from a broadcast antenna, as it normally would.

The resulting, more direct, connection is faster and more reliable than it would be without beamforming.

(Source: NETWORKWORLD)

Bearer

MOBILE TERM

An information transmission path of defined capacity, delay and bit error rate, etc.

A bearer is defined by a combination of QCI and the destination IP address; there are default bearers and dedicated bearers. When a UE attaches to the network it will be assigned a default bearer that it will exist till the UE remains attached to the network. A default bearer is a best effort service (non-Guaranteed Bit Rate). A dedicated bearer is generally used to provide a better user experience for specific services (like for a VoLTE call). A default bearer can be either Guaranteed Bit Rate or non-GBR.

(Source: 3GPP)

Broadcast

AVIATION AND MOBILE TERM

Aviation definition:

To transmit data to no specific destination or recipient. Data can be received by anyone within broadcast range.

(Source: ASTM F.38)

Mobile definition:

A unidirectional point-to-multipoint service in which data is efficiently transmitted from a single source to multiple UEs in the associated broadcast service area. Broadcast services may be received by all users who have enabled the specific broadcast service locally on their UE and who are in the broadcast area defined for the service. In 3GPP the service is called Multimedia Broadcast/Multimedia Service (MBMS). The MMS service offers two modes: broadcast and multicast.

(Source: 3GPP)

Broadcast Remote Identification

AVIATION TERM

Broadcast Remote ID is based on the transmission of radio signals directly from an airborne UAS to ground receivers in the UAS’s vicinity.

(Source: ASTM F3411)

BS (Bearer Services)

MOBILE TERM

BS are telecommunication services that are used to transfer user data and control signals between two pieces of equipment.

BS can range from the transfer of low speed messages (300 bps) to very high-speed data signals (10+ Gbps). Bearer services are typically categorised by their information transfer characteristics, methods of accessing the service, inter-working requirements (to other networks) and other general attributes. Information characteristics include data transfer rate, direction(s) of data flow, type of data transfer (circuit or packet) and other physical characteristics.

The access methods determine what parts of the system control could be affected by the BS. Some BS must cross different types of networks (e.g. wireless and wired) and the data and control information may need to be adjusted depending on the type of network.

(Source: WIRELESSDICTIONARY)

BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line of Sight)

AVIATION TERM

This term is complementary to VLOS, where the pilot has the ability to operate UAS beyond the pilot’s line of sight.

Flying UAS beyond visual line of sight requires a special permit from the Civil Authority and there are specific rules/regulations that must be followed.

ASTM F.38 defines BVLOS as: “The operation when the individual responsible for controlling the flight of the Unmanned Aircraft (UA) cannot maintain direct unaided (other than by corrective lenses or sunglasses, or both) visual contact with the UA, other aircraft, terrain, adverse weather, or obstacles to determine whether the UA endangers life or property or both.”

(Source: ASTM F3196)

C2 Link (Command and Control Link)

AVIATION TERM

The data link between the remotely piloted aircraft and the remote pilot station, for the purpose of managing flight.

(Source: ICAO)

C3 Link (Command, Control and Communications Link)

AVIATION TERM

Similar to C2 link, with the addition of a communications link to the command and control. The communications link is for the purpose of transmitting data which is not related to the management of the flight itself. It is more related to data associated with the actual purpose of the flight operation.

Carrier Aggregation

MOBILE TERM

Carrier aggregation is a technique used in LTE-Advanced to increase the bandwidth for the user, and consequently increase the bitrate. Carrier aggregation can be used for both FDD and TDD. There are 3 types of aggregation possible:
• Intra-band contiguous: the individual carriers are in the same spectrum band and they are next to each other.
• Intra-band non-contiguous: the individual carriers are in the same frequency bands but there can be a gap in between.
• Inter-band: the individual carriers are in separate frequency bands.
3GPP defines the possible combination and the allowed numbers of individual carriers.

(Source: 3GPP)

Carrier Plane

MOBILE TERM

Also known as User Plane, Data Plane or Forwarding Plane.

The data plane is a part of a network through which user packets are transmitted. It is a theoretical term used to conceptualize the flow of data packets through a network infrastructure.

In networking architecture, it is standard practice to separate the information that users send from the information required to process the data. The data plane is commonly contrasted to the control plane, which carries information about the network itself.

In the context of telecommunications, the word “plane” means an area of operations, and it is used to distinguish between the traffic flows.

(Source: TECHOPEDIA)

Cell

MOBILE TERM

A Cell is the geographic area that is covered by a single base station in a cellular network. A network for wireless communications is comprised of a large number of base stations to efficiently use radio spectrum to cover the service area. Geographically separated frequencies may be reused many times.

(Source: TELECOM ABC)

Certified Category Drones

AVIATION TERM

The ‘certified’ category is a category of UA operation that, considering the risks involved, requires the certification of the UAS, a licensed remote pilot and an operator approved by the competent authority, in order to ensure an appropriate level of safety.

(Source: EASA)

CIS (Common Information Services)

AVIATION TERM

The CIS include information about manned aircraft in the U-space, using operational data that is normally held by air navigation service providers that have to make this data available at marginal cost.

(Source: EU Commission)

CNPC (Command & Control and Non-Payload Communication Link)

AVIATION TERM

The communications link connecting the remote pilot located at a ground control station, with the aircraft in the airspace.

(Source: NASA)

Collision Avoidance

AVIATION TERM

The UA (and not the UTM), whether controlled by people or flying autonomously, will have collision avoidance systems to prevent them from flying into fixed objects or other aircraft. In order to avoid obstacles, two services are required: the detection and the deconfliction. The deconfliction can be strategic or tactical.

(Source: ICAO)

Conflict Management

AVIATION TERM

The Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept (ICAO Doc 9854) states that conflict management will consist of three layers: strategic deconfliction, separation provision (tactical deconfliction) and collision avoidance.

(Source: ICAO)

CONOPS (Concept of Operations)

AVIATION TERM

A user-oriented document that describes systems characteristics for a proposed system from a user’s perspective.

A CONOPS also describes the user organisation, mission, and objectives from an integrated systems point of view and is used to communicate overall quantitative and qualitative system characteristics to stakeholders.

(Source: JARUS)

Control Plane

MOBILE TERM

The control plane is that part of a network which carries information necessary to establish and control the network. It is part of the theoretical framework used to understand the flow of information packets between network interfaces.

The control plane defines the topology of a network. It is a significant concept in network routing technology and it is “the brains” of the network.

Three planes are generally recognized in telecommunications: control, data and management. In this context, a “plane” is an area of operations. The control plane, which is associated with signaling, is distinct from the data plane, which carries user information. The management plane is used to manage devices and carries administrative traffic. It is considered a subset of the control plane.

(Source: Techopedia)

The signalling function of a 3GPP system; largely deals with non-packet forwarding functions including mobility management, connection establishment, QoS control, etc.

With Rel-14 and Rel-15, 3GPP aims to separate the user plane and control plane functions respectively for the EPC (Evolved Packet Core) in LTE and the NGC (Next Generation Core) in 5G.

(Source: CIENA)

Controlled Airspace

AVIATION TERM

Controlled Airspace is defined as airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.

(Source: ICAO)

Controlled Airspace is provided primarily to protect its users, mostly commercial airliners, and as such, aircraft which fly in controlled airspace must be equipped to a certain standard and their pilots must hold certain flying qualifications. Pilots must obtain clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to enter such airspace and, except in an emergency situation, they must follow ATC instructions implicitly.

(Source: NATS)

For further information, see ‘Airspace Class (From A-G)’

Cooperative UA

AVIATION TERM

Aircraft that have an electronic means of identification (i.e. a transponder) aboard and operating.

(Source: JARUS)

CORE (Core Network)

MOBILE TERM

It is a critical functional entity that allows information to be exchanged. It is the entity that offers a variety of services to customers. Core networks offer authentication, call control functionalities, charging, etc.

“An architectural term relating to the part of 3GPP System which is independent of the connection technology of the terminal (eg radio, wired)”.

(Source: 3GPP TR 21.905)

Coverage

MOBILE TERM

Coverage refers to the range of a network. There are two different ways to define coverage:

Geographic coverage is defined as the percentage of the territorial area where the service is available.

Population coverage is defined as the percentage of the population to which the service is available.

(Source: TELECOM ABC)

Criticality

AVIATION TERM

The degree of impact that a malfunction has on the operation of a system.

(Source: JARUS)

CS (Control Station)

AVIATION TERM

See ‘GCS’ (Ground Control System).

Data Plane

MOBILE TERM

Also known as User Plane, Forwarding Plane or Carrier Plane.

The data plane is a part of a network through which user packets are transmitted. It is a theoretical term used to conceptualize the flow of data packets through a network infrastructure.

In networking architecture, it is standard practice to separate the information that users send from the information required to process the data. The data plane is commonly contrasted to the control plane, which carries information about the network itself.

In the context of telecommunications, the word “plane” means an area of operations, and it is used to distinguish between the traffic flows.

(Source: TECHOPEDIA)

Data Rate

MOBILE TERM

A transmission speed, or the number of bits per second transferred. In telecommunications, it is common use to express the data rate in bits per seconds (bit/s).

(Source: TELECOMABC)

Datalink

AVIATION TERM

A term referring to all interconnections to, from and within the remotely piloted aircraft system. It includes control, flight status, communication, and payload links.

(Source: JARUS)

Decentralized Strategic Deconfliction

Decentralized strategic deconfliction is a critical function in Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM), that serves as the enabler of safe operations for cooperative traffic.

(Source: ARC)

A service consisting of the arrangement, negotiation and prioritization of intended operational volumes, routes or trajectories of UAS operations to minimize the likelihood of airborne conflicts between operations.

(Source: ICAO)

Dedicated Core Network (DECOR / DCN)

MOBILE TERM

The Dedicated Core Network allows an operator to deploy one or more dedicated core network within a PLMN, with each core network dedicated for a specific type of subscriber.

The specific dedicated core network that serves a UE is selected based on subscription information and operator
configuration, without requiring the UEs to be modified.

(Source: 3GPP)

Downlink

MOBILE TERM

Unidirectional radio link for the transmission of signals from a UTRAN access point to a UE. Also in general the direction from Network to UE.

(Source: 3GPP)

Drone

AVIATION TERM

Also known as UA (Unmanned Aircraft).

The term defines just about any type of unmanned vehicle, either on the ground, aerial or under water. It became very much associated with only Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, originally used by the military, but now it is a widely used term for aircraft of various sizes and functions, ranging from armed forces aircraft to hobbyists taking amateur digital photography.

Drone / UAS Remote Pilot

AVIATION TERM

The person who has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of flight. Synonymous with “remote pilot-in-command.”

(Source: ASTM F38)

DSS (Dynamic Spectrum Sharing)

MOBILE TERM

DSS is a technology that allows the deployment of both 4G LTE and 5G NR in the same frequency band and dynamically allocates spectrum resources between the two technologies based on user demand.

(Source: EVERYTHING RF)

eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband)

MOBILE TERM

Enhanced mobile broadband is one of the three defining characteristics of 5G—the other two being massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) and Ultra Reliable Low Latency communication (URLLC). With throughput speeds that could eventually be as much as 20 Gbps, when millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies are available, eMBB will enable new data-driven experiences requiring high data rates, resulting in a faster and better user experience.

(Source: ITU)

En-gNB

MOBILE TERM

Node providing NR user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE, and acting as Secondary Node in EN-DC.

(Source: 3GPP)

eNB or eNodeB (Evolved Node B)

MOBILE TERM

The base stations in 4G LTE networks are called evolved Node B or eNodeB. In network architecture diagrams, eNodeB is often also abbreviated as eNB.

eNodeB is an essential part of the 4G LTE radio network and is capable of performing network control functions in addition to creating mobile network coverage.

In line with the LTE standard, eNodeB employs separate radio access technologies for the uplink and the downlink.

The communication between eNodeB and the cell phone uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for the downlink and Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for the uplink.

(Source: COMMSBRIEF)

EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

MOBILE TERM

The EPC is the evolution of the 3GPP core network architecture for LTE. EPC was first introduced by 3GPP in Release 8 of the standard and it is fully packet switch based.

(Source: 3GPP)

EVLOS (Extended Visual Line of Sight)

AVIATION TERM

An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operation whereby the Pilot in Command (PIC) maintains uninterrupted situational awareness of the airspace in which the UAS operation is being conducted, via visual airspace surveillance, possibly aided by technology means. The PIC has direct control of the UAS at all times.

(Source: JARUS)

E-UTRA (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access)

MOBILE TERM

Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Terrestrial RAN (E-UTRAN) is the RAN designed for 4G LTE networks.

Fail Safe

AVIATION TERM

A system that helps protect a UAS in case of some type of error. For example, if the UAS loses control signal, a fail safe will have the UAS return to the point of take off (return home) or land immediately.

FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)

MOBILE TERM

FDD is implemented on a paired spectrum where downlink and uplink transmissions are sent on separate frequencies. This provides simultaneous exchange of information and reduces interference between the uplink and downlink.

(Source: OFCOM)

FIMS (Flight Information Management System)

AVIATION TERM

FIMS is an aviation data exchange hub that connects an air traffic management system to UAS Service Providers, with open interfaces to support safe and compliant drone operations in low-altitude airspace.

(Source: SKYGUIDE)

Fixed Wings

AVIATION TERM

This is where the function type of a UA is more like an airplane, with the airframe designed to take advantage of the inertia (1st law of motion).

The design provides for more efficient aerodynamics and longer flight times (45-60 minutes per flight), so it is energy efficient and but unable to hover.

Fixed-wing UAs have high aerial coverage but offer less detailed imagery. These drones require a suitable runway area for take-off and landings, and are usually unable to carry heavier payloads than other types of UAS.

Typical uses include photogrammetry, mapping, crop inspections, and other tasks that require significant area coverage.

FLARM (Flight Alarm)

AVIATION TERM

The traffic awareness and collision avoidance technology for General Aviation, light aircraft, and UAVs.

With FLARM installed, you are alerted of both traffic and imminent collisions with other aircraft, so you can take action before it is too late.

(Source: Flarm.com)

Flight Controller

AVIATION TERM

See ‘GCS’ (Ground Control System).

Forwarding Plane

MOBILE TERM

Also known as User Plane, Data Plane or Carrier Plane.

The data plane is a part of a network through which user packets are transmitted. It is a theoretical term used to conceptualize the flow of data packets through a network infrastructure.

In networking architecture, it is standard practice to separate the information that users send from the information required to process the data. The data plane is commonly contrasted to the control plane, which carries information about the network itself.

In the context of telecommunications, the word “plane” means an area of operations, and it is used to distinguish between the traffic flows.

(Source: TECHOPEDIA)

Frequency Band

MOBILE TERM

A band, or frequency band, refers to a contiguous range of frequencies.

(Source: TELECOMS ABC)

FPV (First Person View)

AVIATION TERM

A method used to control a radio-controlled aircraft by allowing the operator to see what is happening from the point of view of the vehicle. This is typically done either by looking at a screen or by using goggles.

GCS (Ground Control System)

AVIATION TERM

Also indicated as Control Station (CS) or flight controller.

It is an interface used to control the flight of a drone. For many common recreational and commercial drones, this could be a dedicated device, a software application within a mobile phone or other electronic device, or a component of a more elaborate system.

Generally the communication between the drone and the controller is via a short range type of communication, commonly used are wifi or VHS.

“The part of a UAS that remotely controls the UA. It may or may not have a remote pilot directly manipulating the controls.”.

(Source: ASTM F.38)

gNB

MOBILE TERM

Node providing NR user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE, and connected via the NG interface to the 5GC.

(Source: 3GPP)

HAE (High Altitude and Endurance)

AVIATION TERM

HAE, also known as HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance) is a specific category of UAS that operates at high altitude, normally above the controlled manned airspace. Typical commercial (manned) flights cruise at up to 35,000 feet, just above the troposphere. HALE flights have been tested at 45,000 and above, far above the rest of the traditional air traffic.

Given their diverse nature and incredible speed range (with a possible maximum speed of up to 12,000 km/h) HALE flights need a dedicated airspace with dynamic flow management.

HALE (High Altitude Long Endurance)

AVIATION TERM

See “HAE”

Handover

MOBILE TERM

The transfer of a user’s connection from one radio channel to another (can be the same or different cell) and also the process in which the radio access network changes the radio transmitters or radio access mode or radio system used to provide the bearer services, while maintaining a defined bearer service QoS.”

(Source: 3GPP TR 21.905)

HAPS (High Altitude Platform Station)

AVIATION TERM

Easily deployable stations operating in the stratosphere (layer of the Earth’s atmosphere starting at 20 kilometres) that are high enough to provide service to a large area or to augment the capacity of other broadband service providers.

(Source: ITU)

Hybrid Drones

AVIATION TERM

Hybrid drones offer the benefits of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) and the ability to fly quickly in a forward motion to cover larger areas of land, while still having the ability to hover. Hovering allows for close-up inspections and produces more detailed information. Hybrids can be used in many of the same ways as Fixed Wings and Multi-Rotors but they are crucial for an Urban Air Mobility where drones will carry people.

IFR (Instrument Flight Rules)

AVIATION TERM

Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flights, under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe.

IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals.

(Source: FAA)

IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity)

MOBILE TERM

An IMEI is a unique number which shall be allocated to each individual mobile station equipment in the PLMN and shall be unconditionally implemented by the MS manufacturer.

(Source: 3GPP)

IMSI (International Mobile Subscription Identity)

MOBILE TERM

The IMSI is a string of decimal digits, up to a maximum length of 15 digits, which identifies a unique subscription.

The IMSI consists of three fields: the mobile country code (MCC), the mobile network code (MNC), and the mobile subscription identification number (MSIN).

(Source: ITU)

IoT (Internet of Things)

MOBILE TERM

IoT describes the coordination of multiple machines, devices and appliances connected to the Internet through multiple networks.

(Source: GSMA)

LAANC (Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability System)

AVIATION TERM

LAANC is a specific authorisation process, defined by the FAA in the US, to facilitate and support UAS integration into national airspace. LAANC allows drones access to controlled airspace in near real-time.

(Source: FAA)

Latency

MOBILE TERM

The latency of a communications network is defined as the time needed to transport information from a sender to a receiver.
One of the most commonly used measures of latency is the Round-Trip-Time (RTT), which is defined as the time taken for a packet of information to travel from the sender to the receiver and back again.

(Source: ESOA)

Licensed Spectrum

MOBILE TERM

Spectrum refers to the invisible radio frequencies that wireless signals travel over. Licensed Spectrum is a spectrum that has been bought for exclusive use by specific providers.

(CITIA)

LOS (Line of Sight)

AVIATION TERM

Line-of-sight means that the remote pilot and the UAS need to be in direct radio contact and not visual contact. There are situations where the visual line of sight is lost but the radio signal is still in sight.

Manned Aviation

AVIATION TERM

This term is used by specific aviation-related technologies or activities that include, or require, the physical presence of one or more crew members in the aircraft. All commercial aircraft from airlines are in this classification.

MASPS (Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards)

AVIATION TERM

The MASPS specifies characteristics that should be useful to designers, installers, manufacturers, service providers and users of systems intended for operational use within a defined airspace.

Where the systems are global in nature, the system may have international applications that are taken into consideration. The MASPS describes the system (subsystems / functions) and provides information needed to understand the rationale for system characteristics, operational goals, requirements and typical applications.

Definitions and assumptions essential to proper understanding of the MASPS are provided, as well as minimum system test procedures to verify system performance compliance (e.g., end-to-end performance verification).

(Source: JARUS)

MEC (Multi-access Edge Computing)

MOBILE TERM

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) offers application developers and content providers cloud-computing capabilities and an IT service environment at the edge of the network. This environment is characterized by ultra-low latency and high bandwidth as well as real-time access to radio network information that can be leveraged by applications.

MEC provides a new ecosystem and value chain. Operators can open their Radio Access Network (RAN) edge to authorized third-parties, allowing them to flexibly and rapidly deploy innovative applications and services towards mobile subscribers, enterprises and vertical segments. (ETSI)

MINO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

MOBILE TERM

MIMO is used to increase the overall bitrate through transmission of two (or more) different data streams on two (or more) different antennas – using the same resources in both frequency and time, separated only through use of different reference signals – to be received by two or more antennas (3GPP)

mMINO (Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output)

MOBILE TERM

An extension of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), using more transmit and receive antennas to increase transmission gain and spectral efficiency.

There is currently no set minimum scale, though a system with greater than eight transmit and eight receive antenna is generally considered the threshold for massive.

mMTC (Massive Machine-Type Communications)

MOBILE TERM

Massive machine-type communication is one of the three application defined by 5G ITU. It is envisioned to support IoT use cases with billions of connected devices and sensors. ITU requirements generally refer to device density for this type of application.

The use case is characterized by low bandwidth and infrequent
bursts of data, requiring long-life batteries.

(Source: ITU)

mmWave (Millimetre Wave)

MOBILE TERM

mmWave, also known as millimetre band, is the band of spectrum with wavelengths between 10 millimetres (30 GHz) and 1 millimetre (300 GHz).

Millimetre wave is a band of electromagnetic spectrum that can be used in a broad range of products and services, such as high-speed, point-to-point wireless local area networks (WLANs) and broadband access.

In telecommunications, millimetre wave is used for a variety of services on mobile and wireless networks, as it enables higher data rates than at lower frequencies, such as those used for Wi-Fi and current cellular networks.

Antennas for millimetre wave devices are smaller than for other frequencies, making them more suitable for small internet of things (IoT) devices.

(Source: TECHTARGET)

Mobility

AVIATION AND MOBILE TERM

The ability for the user to communicate whilst moving, independent of location.

(Source: 3GPP)

Mobility Management

MOBILE TERM

A relation between the mobile station and the radio access network that is used to set-up, maintain and release the various physical channels.

(Source: 3GPP)

Model Aircraft

AVIATION TERM

Model aircraft is a type of unmanned aircraft. These models are often scaled down versions of manned aircraft. Many hobbyists tend to fly from specific, designated sites as part of a club environment. However, ‘solo’ flight from other locations is also possible provided that the models are operated in accordance with the requirements of the law and flown with respect to the safety of other people and aircraft.

(Source: UK CAA)

MOPS (Minimum Operational Performance Standards)

AVIATION TERM

MOPS provides standards for specific equipment(s) useful to designers, manufacturers, installers and users of the equipment.

The word “equipment” used in a MOPS includes all components and units necessary for the system to properly perform its intended function(s).

The MOPS provides the information needed to understand the rationale for equipment characteristics and requirements stated.

The MOPS describes typical equipment applications and operational goals and establishes the basis for required performance under the standard.

Definitions and assumptions essential to proper understanding are provided as well as installed equipment tests and operational performance characteristics for equipment installations.

(Source: JARUS)

MSL (Mean Sea Level)

AVIATION TERM

This is the true altitude or elevation. It is the average height above standard sea level where the atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude.

Multi / Single Rotor

AVIATION TERM

These are the most popular drone types for both consumer and small commercial use. Characteristics of these types of drones are: ease to operate/pilot; they offer vertical take-off and landing and the ability to hover; normally intense in power consumption. They are normally used for industrial inspections, aerial mapping, site planning and monitoring crop spraying and many more.

Multicasting

MOBILE TERM

Multicasting is communication from one sender to a defined group of receivers in a network, a communication typically indicated with cardinality 1:n.

Multicasting is the opposite of unicasting, which is communication between one sender and one receiver.

Multicast services can only be received by such users that are subscribed to the specific multicast service and have joined the multicast group associated with the specific service.

In 3GPP the service is called Multimedia Broadcast/Multimedia Service (MBMS). The MMS service offers two modes: broadcast and multicast. Unlike the broadcast mode, the multicast mode requires a subscription from the UE.

(Source: 3GPP)

Multipath

MOBILE TERM

Multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio signals’ reaching the receiving antenna by
two or more paths. Causes of multipath include atmospheric ducting,
ionospheric reflection and refraction, and reflection from terrestrial objects, such as mountains and
buildings.
The effects of multipath include constructive and destructive interference, and phase shifting of the signal.

(Source: IDCONLINE)

NAS (National Airspace System)

AVIATION TERM

The NAS is a network of both controlled and uncontrolled airspace, both domestic and oceanic. It also includes air navigation facilities, equipment and services; airports and landing areas; aeronautical charts, information and services; rules and regulations; procedures and technical information; and manpower and material.

(Source: FAA)

Network Availability

MOBILE TERM

Network Availability is a probabilistic measure of the length of time a system or network is functioning.

Generally calculated as a percentage, e.g. 99.999% (referred to as 5 nines up time) is carrier grade availability.

(Source: MapTourTech)

Network Capacity

MOBILE TERM

Network Capacity is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at any given time. This includes the number of simultaneous voice calls and maximum data speeds. Capacity varies by area.

(Source: GSMARENA)

Network Remote Identification

AVIATION TERM

Network Remote ID is based on communication via the internet from a Remote ID service provider that interfaces with the UAS, or with other sources in the case of Non-Equipped Network Participants. The drone is communicating with something that provides remote identification information to the internet.

(Source: ASTM)

Network Slice

MOBILE TERM

A logical network that provides specific network capabilities and network characteristics.

Network slicing is a mandatory feature of the 5G System (5GS). The network slice can be tailored based on the specific requirements agreed between Network Slice Customer (NSC) and Network Slice Provider (NSP). A network slice could span across multiple network domains used by a NSP (e.g. access network, core network and transport network).

A network slice is comprised of dedicated and/or shared resources, e.g. in terms of functionality, processing power, storage, and bandwidth. Dedicated resources can be isolated from other network slices.

A network slice available in the HPMN to their own subscribers, may also be available when the UE is roaming. (see GSMA NG.116 https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/resources/ng-116-generic-network-slice-template-v4-0/)

(Source: 3GPP)

Network Traffic Modelling

MOBILE TERM

Network traffic modelling is the process of describing the dynamic behavior of network by random processes. The issue that it is hard to fully predict the demand on any network from service provider point of view, so it is important to find an accurate traffic model to maintain the quality of service.

Network Throughput

MOBILE TERM

The rate of message delivery over a single channel.

(Source: ITTSYSTEMS)

ng-eNG

MOBILE TERM

Node providing E-UTRA user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE, and connected via the NG interface to the 5GC.

NFV (Network Functions Virtualization)

MOBILE TERM

Telecoms networks contain an increasing variety of proprietary hardware appliances. To launch a new network service often requires yet another appliance and finding the space and power to accommodate these boxes is becoming increasingly difficult.

NFV aims to address these problems by evolving standard IT virtualization technology to consolidate many network equipment types onto industry standard high volume servers, switches and storage.

It involves implementing network functions in software that can run on a range of industry standard server hardware, and that can be moved to, or instantiated in, various locations in the network as required, without the need to install new equipment.

(Source: ETSI)

NLOS (Non Line of Sight)

AVIATION TERM

No Fly Zone

AVIATION TERM

Areas where flying a drone is restricted by government regulations. Examples are restricted areas like airports, critical infrastructure areas (power plants), military zones, etc. These areas are defined by the aviation authorities.

Non-cooperative UA

AVIATION TERM

Aircraft that do not have an electronic means of identification (i.e., a transponder) aboard.

NR (5G New Radio)

MOBILE TERM

New Radio is a radio interface standard defined by 3GPP, starting from Release 15, with the intent to provide enhance capabilities to fulfill the requirement of 5G as set by ITU.

It delivers significantly faster and more responsive mobile broadband experiences, and extend mobile technology to connect and redefine a multitude of new industries.

The overall design consists of several key components. The addition of support for much higher carrier frequencies, for more traffic and higher consumer data rates. NR enhances network energy performance and reduces interference. Low latency is also critical to improve performance and enable new use cases.

Support for beamforming and a massive number of antenna elements to further improve the capacity NR is defined by a set of specification from 3GPP series 38.

NSA (5G Non Stand Alone)

MOBILE TERM

3GPP has explored several deployment scenario options for NR. One of option is commonly referred as non-standalone and it leverage the existing deployments of LTE Evolve Packet Core(EPC) network.

The existing LTE radio access and core network (EPC) is used as an anchor for mobility management and coverage to add the 5G carrier. This solution enables operators to provide 5G services with shorter time and lesser cost.

(Source: GSMA 5G Implementation guidelines: https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5G-Implementation-Guideline-v2.0-July-2019.pdf)

OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access)

MOBILE TERM

Orthogonal frequency division multiple Access (OFDM) is a multi-user version of the popular orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme.
Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users. This allows simultaneous low-data-rate transmission from several users.

OFDM is the base for LTE and NR. OFDM is a frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) scheme; multiple closely spaced orthogonal subcarrier signals with overlapping spectra are transmitted to carry data in parallel.

(Source: Wikipedia)

Operator / UAS Operator

AVIATION TERM

Entity or Person responsible for flight which could include a company or individual or both.

(Source: ASTM F38)

Open Category Drones

AVIATION TERM

The ‘open’ category is a category of UAS operation that, considering the risks involved, does not require a prior authorisation by the competent authority, nor a declaration by the UAS operator, before the operation takes place.

(Source: EASA)

Operator Location

AVIATION TERM

The geographic location of the Remote Pilot of a UAS.

(Source: ASTM F38)

Part 101

AVIATION TERM

ICAO’s Part 101 consolidates the rules governing all unmanned aeronautical activities into one body of legislation.

It prescribes the rules for the use of unmanned moored balloons and kites, unmanned free balloons, unmanned rockets, remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), model aircraft, and pyrotechnic displays.

(Source: CASA)

Part 107

AVIATION TERM

These are commercial drone operator regulations created by the Federal Aviation Administration to define restrictions and safety standards for commercial drone flights. They cover UAs below 55 lbs (25Kg).

Payload

AVIATION TERM

Payload is a generic term for indicating physical items that are attached to, or carried by, the aircraft. Examples are cameras, sensors, or other equipment like spraying tools and packages in general.

Peak Data Rate

MOBILE TERM

Maximum achievable data rate per user measured in bps.

(Source: ETSI)

PGW (Packet Data Network Gateway)

MOBILE TERM

PGW is the node that connects the EPS network with external networks. It assures a connection to a remote destination to each UE, through the assigning of an IP address.

(Source: SCIENCEDIRECT)

Positioning Services

MOBILE TERM

UE Positioning service provides the mechanisms to support or assist the calculation of the geographical position of a UE.

In 3GPP the service is called Location Services (LCS) and the 3GPP standards allow to identify and report in a standard format (e.g. geographical co-ordinates) the current location of the user’s terminal and to make the information available to the user, ME, network operator, service provider, value added service providers and for PLMN internal operations.

(Source: 3GPP)

The location is provided to identify the likely location of specific MEs. This is meant to be used for charging, location-based services, lawful interception, emergency calls, etc., as well as the positioning services.

The standard shall support NG-RAN, E-UTRAN, GERAN and UTRAN to facilitate determination of the location of a mobile station.

Priority Service

MOBILE TERM

Priority Service allows qualified and authorized users to obtain priority access to available radio (voice or data traffic) resources on a priority basis before other PLMN users during situations when PLMN congestion is blocking call attempts.

The Multimedia Priority Service (MPS) is described in 3GPP TS 22.153.

(Source: 3GPP)

QCI (QoS Class Identifier)

MOBILE TERM

A scalar that is used as a reference to a specific packet forwarding behaviour (e.g. packet loss rate, packet delay budget) to be provided to a SDF. This may be implemented in the access network by the QCI referencing node specific parameters that control packet forwarding treatment (e.g. scheduling weights, admission thresholds, queue management thresholds, link layer protocol configuration, etc.), that have been pre-configured by the operator at a specific node(s) (e.g. eNodeB)

(Source: 3GPP)

QOS (Quality of Service)

MOBILE TERM

The collective effect of service performances which determine the degree of satisfaction of a user of a service. It is characterised by the combined aspects of performance factors applicable to all services, such as;
– service operability performance;
– service accessibility performance;
– service retainability performance;
– service integrity performance; and
– other factors specific to each service

(Source: 3GPP)

RAN (Radio Access Network)

MOBILE TERM

A Radio Access Network represents the technology connecting individual devices to other parts of a network through radio connections.

The actual specific architecture varies depending on the telecommunication generations (e.g 4G, 5G) The RAN receives the signal information, it process it and send it to the Core Network.

Registration

AVIATION TERM

The process by which an owner/operator (including contact information and other information) and aircraft (e.g., make, model) are associated with an assigned, unique identifier.

(Source: ASTM F38)

Regulated Airspace

AVIATION TERM

Regulated Airspace, or Controlled Airspace, is defined as airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.

(Source: ICAO)

Controlled Airspace is provided primarily to protect its users, mostly commercial airliners, and as such, aircraft which fly in controlled airspace must be equipped to a certain standard and their pilots must hold certain flying qualifications. Pilots must obtain clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to enter such airspace and, except in an emergency situation, they must follow ATC instructions implicitly.

(Source: NATS)

For further information, see ‘Airspace Class (From A-G)’

Reliability

AVIATION TERM

The probability that an item will perform a required function under specified conditions, without failure, for a specified period of time.

(Source: JARUS)

Remote Identification

AVIATION TERM

Remote Identification (or Remote ID) is the ability of a drone in flight to provide identification and location information that can be received by other parties.

(Source: FAA)

Remote Pilot-in-Command

AVIATION TERM

See ‘UAS / Drone Remote Pilot’.

Risk

AVIATION TERM

The frequency (probability) of occurrence and the associated level of hazard.

(Source: JARUS)

Risk Assessment

AVIATION TERM

The process by which the results of risk analysis are used to make decisions.

(Source: JARUS)

RLOS (Radio Line of Sight)

AVIATION TERM

Roaming

MOBILE TERM

International mobile roaming is a service that allows mobile
users to continue to use their mobile phone or other mobile
device to make and receive voice calls and text messages,
browse the internet, and send and receive emails, while visiting another country.

(Source: GSMA)

RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aerial System)

AVIATION TERM

This consists of a remotely piloted aircraft, its associated remote pilot station(s), the required command and control links and any other system elements as may be required at any point during flight operation.

(Source: ICAO)

RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power)

MOBILE TERM

RSRP is defined as the linear average over the power
contributions of the resource elements that carry cell-specific reference signals within the considered measurement frequency bandwidth.

(Source: ETSI)

RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality)

MOBILE TERM

RSRQ is defined as the ratio N×RSRP/(E-UTRA carrier
RSSI), where N is the number of RB’s of the E-UTRA carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and denominator shall be made over the same set of resource blocks.

(Source: ETSI)

RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)

MOBILE TERM

Received Signal Strength Indicator is an estimated measurement of how good a device can hear, detect and receive signals. It represents the total received wide-band power measured over entire bandwidth by UE.

RSSI is not reported to eNodeB. It is computed to be used for the calculation of RSRQ in LTE system.

RSSI is also a power and its measurement unit is dBm same as RSRP.The indicator can be calculated by: RSSI=Serving Cell Power + Neighbour Co-Channel Cells Power + Thermal Noise.

SA (5G Stand Alone)

MOBILE TERM

3GPP has explored several deployment scenario options for NR (New Radio). One of the options is commonly referred to as standalone.

Standalone comprises of only one generation of radio access technology, in the specific NR. A network where radio access network consists of only gNBs (gNode Bs) and connects to 5GC (5G Core). Such deployment brings all the benefits of 5G, such as ultra-low latency, network-slicing, etc.

(Source: GSMA 5G Implementation Guidelines https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5G-Implementation-Guideline-v2.0-July-2019.pdf )

SA (Service Assurance)

MOBILE TERM

SA is the application of policies and processes by a Communications Service Provider to ensure that services offered over networks meet a pre-defined service quality level for an optimal subscriber experience.

(Source: WIPRO)

SDSP (Supplemental Data Service Provider)

AVIATION TERM

A model and/or data based service that disseminates essential or enhanced information to ensure safe operations within low-altitude airspace.

These services include terrain and obstacle data, specialised weather data, surveillance, constraint information, risk monitoring, etc.

(Source: NASA)

Sense and Avoid

AVIATION TERM

The capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic.

Sense and Avoid provides the functions of self-separation and collision avoidance.

Sidelink Communication

MOBILE TERM

Functionality enabling proximity based services direct communication between two or more nearby user equipment, using E-UTRA technology but not traversing any network node.

(Source: 3GPP)

SIM Card

MOBILE TERM

The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), or Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), is the entity that contains the identity of the subscriber for the purpose to authenticate and validate the access to a network.

The USIM is a 3GPP application on UICC card. It interoperates with a 3GPP terminal and provides access to 3GPP services.

UICC cards have several form factors, traditionally the UICC is a removable plastic card, or embedded in the device itself (known as embedded SIM (eSIM)).

(Source: ETSI/GSMA)

SIM Card Registration

MOBILE TERM

Pre-paid SIM card registration is mandated in a number of countries and requires consumers to provide proof of identification in order to activate and use a mobile SIM card.

(Source: GSMA)

Single / Multi Rotor

AVIATION TERM

These are the most popular drone types for both consumer and small commercial use. Characteristics of these types of drones are: easiness to operate/pilot; they offer vertical take-off and landing and the ability to hover; normally intense in power consumption. They are normally used for industrial inspections, aerial mapping, site planning and monitoring crop spraying and many more.

SORA (Specific Operation Risk Assessment)

AVIATION TERM

A means by which an aircraft operator is granted approval, by certifying authorities, to operate an unmanned aircraft system within the limitations set forth by the authorities in the Specific Category.

(Source: JARUS)

Specific Category Drones

AVIATION TERM

The ‘specific’ category is a category of UAS operation that, considering the risks involved, requires an authorisation by the competent authority before the operation takes place. It takes into account the mitigation measures identified in an operational risk assessment, except for certain standard scenarios where a declaration by the operator is sufficient, or when the operator holds a Light UAS operator Certificate (LUC) with the appropriate privileges.

(Source: EASA)

Spectral Efficiency (or Bandwidth Efficiency)

MOBILE TERM

Spectral efficiency is also called bandwidth efficiency and it refers to the rate at which information can be transmitted over a given bandwidth. It is measured in bits per second per hertz.

(Source: IGI Global)

Spectrum

MOBILE TERM

Spectrum relates to the radio frequencies allocated to the mobile industry and other sectors for communication over the airwaves.

(Source: GSMA)

sUAS (Small UAS)

AVIATION TERM

Small UAS is a category defined by the FAA which weighs less than 55 pounds (25 kg), including payload. Aircraft that are below this weight can be operated for commercial purposes under Part 107 of the FAA regulations.

SUCI (Subscription Concealed Identifier)

MOBILE TERM

SUCI is a privacy preserving identifier containing the concealed Subscription Permanent Identifier (SUPI).

It is a one-time use subscription identifier, which contains the Scheme-Output, and additional non-concealed information needed for home network routing and protection scheme usage.

(Source: 3GPP)

SUPI (Subscription Permanent Identifier)

MOBILE TERM

The SUPI is a globally unique 5G Subscription Permanent Identifier allocated to each subscriber in the 5G System.

(Source: 3GPP)

Tactical Deconfliction

AVIATION TERM

Tactical deconfliction is a service envisioned for the UTM and is the provision of a safe distance or safe time between aircraft in flight. It is considered a reactive conflict management.

(Source: ICAO UTM – A Common Framework with Core Principles for Global Harmonization)

TDD (Time Division Duplex)

MOBILE TERM

TDD is a technology used in communications where the uplink and the downlink use the same frequency. The uplink and downlink are separated in time. Users get one or more time slots assigned for the uplink and the downlink respectively.

TDD makes it possible to dynamically allocate more bandwidth to downstream traffic if necessary. This makes TDD very bandwidth efficient in cases where the traffic flow is asymmetric.

(Source: TELECOM ABC)

Transmission Network

MOBILE TERM

Transmission systems enabling information to be transmitted in analogue or digital form between various different sites by means of electromagnetic or optical signals.

The information may consist of audio or video data or some other type of data. The networks are based either on wired or wireless infrastructures.

(Source: NFON)

Types of UAS

AVIATION TERM

There are a variety of technologies on the market. The main types of UAS available in the commercial space are: single or multi rotor, fixed wings, hybrid (VTOL).

UA (Unmanned Aircraft)

AVIATION TERM

Also known as ‘Drone’.

UA / Drone Categories

AVIATION TERM

EASA has defined three drone categories that relate to the level of risk involved in carrying out the operation rather than to whether the work is being carried out commercially:
Open, Specific, Certified.

The FAA defines categories based on the weight of the UAS.

UAM (Urban Air Mobility)

AVIATION TERM

Urban Air Mobility (UAM) envisions a safe and efficient aviation transportation system that will use highly automated aircraft and operate and transport passengers or cargo at lower altitudes within urban and suburban areas.

(Source: FAA)

UAS (Unmanned Aerial System)

AVIATION TERM

The term refers to the combination of the vehicle or aircraft, the controller, and the link(s) that connect them.

UAS / Drone Remote Pilot

AVIATION TERM

The person who has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of flight. Synonymous with “remote pilot-in-command.”

(Source: ASTM F38)

UAS Operator

AVIATION TERM

Entity or Person responsible for flight which could include a company or individual or both.

(Source: ASTM F38)

UAS Types

AVIATION TERM

There are a variety of technologies on the market. The main types of UAS available in the commercial space are: single or multi rotor, fixed wings, hybrid (VTOL).

UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)

AVIATION TERM

This term refers to the platform, airframe, or body of the aircraft. The term can be used interchangeably with drone and UA.

UE (User Equipment)

MOBILE TERM

Any device used directly by an end-user to communicate, such as smart phone, laptop, IoT device, etc.

Uncontrolled Airspace

AVIATION TERM

Generally refers to the Class G airspace where any aircraft can fly without either notifying or getting permission from the national Civil Aviation authority.

Unicasting

MOBILE TERM

Unicasting indicates communication between one sender and one receiver in a network. It is normally indicated by the cardinality 1:1. It is the traditional communication in the telecommunication network.

Unicasting is the opposite of multicasting, which is communication between one sender and a number of receivers.

Unregulated Airspace

AVIATION TERM

See “Uncontrolled Airspace”

Unmanned Aviation

AVIATION TERM

The term is used for aviation related technologies that do not require the physical presence of a crew member in the aircraft.

Uplink

MOBILE TERM

An uplink is a unidirectional radio link for the transmission of signals from a UE to a base station, from a Mobile Station to a mobile base station or from a mobile base station to a base station.

(Source: 3GPP)

URLLC (Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication)

MOBILE TERM

One of the three 5G applications defined by ITU (eMBB, mMTC and URLLC). URLLC is a set of features that provide low latency and ultra-high reliability for mission critical applications such as industrial internet, smart grids, remote surgery and intelligent transportation systems.

(Source: EVERYTHINGRF)

User Plane

MOBILE TERM

Also known as Data Plane, Forwarding Plane or Carrier Plane.

The data plane is a part of a network through which user packets are transmitted. It is a theoretical term used to conceptualize the flow of data packets through a network infrastructure.

In networking architecture, it is standard practice to separate the information that users send from the information required to process the data. The data plane is commonly contrasted to the control plane, which carries information about the network itself.

In the context of telecommunications, the word “plane” means an area of operations, and it is used to distinguish between the traffic flows.

(Source: TECHOPEDIA)

U-Space

AVIATION TERM

U-space is a set of new services relying on a high level of digitalisation and automation of functions and specific procedures designed to support safe, efficient and secure access to airspace for large numbers of drones.

As such, U-space is an enabling framework designed to facilitate any kind of routine mission, in all classes of airspace and all types of environment – even the most congested – while addressing an appropriate interface with manned aviation and air traffic control.

(Source: SESARJU)

USS (UAS Service Supplier)

AVIATION TERM

USSs provide UTM services to support the UAS community, to connect Operators and other entities to enable information flow across the USS network, and to promote shared situational awareness among UTM participants.

As defined by ASTM F38.

(Source: FAA UTM ConOps V1, May 2018)

UTM (Unmanned Traffic Management)

AVIATION TERM

A rather new concept created to safely integrate manned and unmanned aircraft into low altitude airspace. This system will help manage traffic at low altitudes and avoid collisions of more than one UAS being operated beyond visual line of sight. UTM has a consolidated architecture, but with potentially slightly different deployment models.

VFR (Visual Flight Rules)

AVIATION TERM

Visual flight rules are a set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going.

(Source: FAA)

VLOS (Visual Line of Sight)

AVIATION TERM

The term is used to indicate that the UAS must maintain visual contact at all times while operating between the remote pilot and the UAS. Generally the hobbyist/consumer drones are in this category and because of the limited distance (normally within a max of 500 metres) do not require special permission from the Civil Aviation Authorities.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

MOBILE TERM

A virtual private network, or VPN, is an encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network. The encrypted connection helps ensure that sensitive data is safely transmitted. It prevents unauthorised people from eavesdropping on the traffic and allows the user to conduct work remotely. VPN technology is widely used in corporate environments.

(Source: CISCO)

Waypoints

AVIATION TERM

A set of coordinates that define a point in space. Waypoints are used to create flight paths for drones.

4G

MOBILE TERM

4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone technology and follows on from 2G and 3G. 4G services make it much quicker to surf the web on your mobile, tablets and laptops. Because of this, 4G is ideally suited for services which demand more capacity like video streaming, mapping and social networking sites. For the typical user, download speeds of initial 4G networks could be around 5-7 times those for existing 3G networks.

(Source: OFCOM)

5G

MOBILE TERM

5G is the fifth generation of cellular technology. It is designed to increase speed, reduce latency, and improve flexibility of wireless services. 5G technology has a theoretical peak speed of 20 Gbps, while the peak speed of 4G is only 1 Gbps.

(Source: CISCO)

5G New Radio (NR)

MOBILE TERM

New Radio is a radio interface standard defined by 3GPP, starting from Release 15, with the intent to provide enhance capabilities to fulfill the requirement of 5G as set by ITU.

It delivers significantly faster and more responsive mobile broadband experiences, and extend mobile technology to connect and redefine a multitude of new industries.

The overall design consists of several key components. The addition of support for much higher carrier frequencies, for more traffic and higher consumer data rates. NR enhances network energy performance and reduces interference. Low latency is also critical to improve performance and enable new use cases.

Support for beamforming and a massive number of antenna elements to further improve the capacity NR is defined by a set of specification from 3GPP series 38.

5G Non Stand Alone (NSA)

MOBILE TERM

3GPP has explored several deployment scenario options for NR. One of option is commonly referred as non-standalone and it leverage the existing deployments of LTE Evolve Packet Core(EPC) network.

The existing LTE radio access and core network (EPC) is used as an anchor for mobility management and coverage to add the 5G carrier. This solution enables operators to provide 5G services with shorter time and lesser cost.

(Source: GSMA 5G Implementation guidelines https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5G-Implementation-Guideline-v2.0-July-2019.pdf)

5G Stand Alone (SA)

MOBILE TERM

3GPP has explored several deployment scenario options for NR. One of options is commonly referred as standalone.

Standalone comprises of only one generation of radio access technology, in the specific NR. A network where radio access network consists of only gNBs (gNode Bs) and connects to 5GC (5G Core). Such deployment brings all the benefits of 5G, such as ultra-low latency, network-slicing, etc.

(Source: GSMA 5G Implementation guidelines https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5G-Implementation-Guideline-v2.0-July-2019.pdf)

To submit additional terms for consideration, or to provide comments on the definitions above, please contact drones@gsma.com